Are dry summers to blame for out-of-season flowers?

While visiting his parents’ New Jersey home in late September, Andrew Goldman noticed something strange: Their crabapple tree was blooming. Goldman, who works with edible plants and lives in Rhode Island, said that the tree typically blooms in April. In the 20 years his family has lived in the house, he can’t remember its ever having bloomed in the fall before.

Crabapple flowering in late September. Lots of blossoms all over this tree; it usually flowers in April…

Andrew Goldman

Goldman wasn’t alone in observing this phenomenon. In the fall of 2018, others posting on ISeeChange noted rhododendron, lilac and apples blooming throughout the Northeast. Anna Cash’s crabapple in Milford, Ohio, bloomed during the last week of September 2020, and she spotted strawberries flowering in her community garden in October. 

“I was kind of baffled when I saw the blooms,” Cash said. 

Cash speculated that dry weather was to blame for her tree’s strange behavior. Indeed, drought stress can trigger plants to bloom at abnormal times of year. 

Overall, much of this unusual fall blooming did happen in regions with drier late summers this year. The USA National Phenology Network collects, stores and shares information about the timing of biological events of plants and animals — like first leaves and migration. This year, according to Director Theresa Crimmins, the network received more reports of open flowers on lilacs and apples in September and October of 2020 than in all previous years of data collection going back to 2010. The majority of those reports came from the Midwest and Northeast. But observations of out-of-season blooming were also shared on ISeeChange from North Carolina, which experienced a wet summer.

As climate change brings more heatwaves, droughts and heavy downpours, plants are experiencing additional stress. That stress could cause more plants to bloom in the fall and fewer buds to open in the spring. And gardeners may need to take more care to protect their plants. 

Bloom occurring on crabapple tree in last week of September. Most likely due to period of drought.

Anna Cash


Drought may trigger out-of-season blooming

Many trees and shrubs that flower in early spring, like apples and lilacs, form their buds during the preceding summer. When spring breaks the plant’s dormancy, the buds burst open and bloom.

But sometimes, plants bloom out of season. Mark Longstroth, a fruit educator at Michigan State University Extension, has seen occasional fall flowering throughout his 45 year career of observing apples, he said. This phenomenon is most common in the northern U.S. Longstroth points to drought as the major trigger. 

During July and early August, Ohio and New Jersey — the locations of Cash and Goldman’s crabapple trees — were experiencing abnormally dry conditions, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. Longstroth speculates that stress during early August can be particularly influential in causing unusual fall blooms. 

Dry, dry, dry. A few degrees warmer than normal but mostly just parched. Last week’s report had us in moderate drought, bordering on severe drought to the east of us. I added irrigation hoses over the weekend for fall vegetables (didn’t need them in the spring) but the native perennials are on their own. We’ll see what comes back in the spring. The grass is long dead (but crabgrass of course is lush) and some trees are turning color and dropping leaves prematurely. No real rain in the forecast either.

Judy Donnelly

The mechanism by which drought can cause flowering is uncertain, but some research suggests that it’s linked to stress-induced dormancy that helps plants preserve energy — similar to their experience during winter. 

“According to our current understanding, the process of overcoming winter dormancy is also related to stress, and possibly summer drought is able to evoke a similar response,” said Eike Ludeling, a researcher at the Institute of Crop Sciences and Resource Conservation at the University of Bonn in Germany.

It’s likely that the conditions thought to lead to stress-induced blooming — dry, hot, late summers — will become more common as the climate changes. Climate models suggest that the Northern Plains and Midwest will see reduced precipitation in the summer months. And hotter and more severe heat waves are expected to increase evaporation and moisture stress on plants.

The weather in the greater Rochester has been abnormally hot over the past week. The past 5 days have reached at least 90*F in temperature. Was a high today of 94*F (7/9). Very humid but very dry as well with no rainfall which is desperately needed. Expected to reach 94*F on Friday 7/10 as well (WHEC News 10). Rain is expected over the weekend (at risk of potential drought conditions if lack of rain persisted longer). Photos show sunny clear sky and dry conditions. Area usually gets much more rain during the summer times. What is even more unusual is that the region is expected to reach another string of 90*F+ days the coming week (WHEC News 10).

Derek Ward-Joyles

Longstroth said that in areas with good precipitation, fall blooming shouldn’t be too much of an increased problem. “Plants can be real susceptible to environmental cues, but we don’t see crabapples or apples that are grown in the South blooming twice,” he said.


Some fall blooms aren’t actually abnormal

In addition to the out-of-season blooming that was observed in the Midwest and Northeast this year, ISeeChange posts from central North Carolina documented cherry trees and azaleas blooming, as well as some typically summer-blooming plants flowering in late November. 

Six straight days of temps in the 60s – 4 of those being in the upper 60’s, nearly 10 degrees above average. So this blooming azalea is no surprise in this weirdly warm November.

Jeffrey Muchuweni Becker

Robert Mottern III, the director of horticulture at Sarah P. Duke Gardens in Durham, North Carolina, said that he didn’t think the blooming azaleas were abnormal. “We see azaleas sporadically bloom every fall,” he said.

Mottern said that one reason for that is the growing popularity of the Encore Azalea variety, which blooms throughout the growing season. 

Dan Stern, the director of horticulture at the North Carolina Botanical Garden in Chapel Hill, said that cherry trees also bloom occasionally in the fall. “We frequently see cherry trees throw open some flowers when a warm spell follows our first real cold snap,” Stern said.

A Kwanzan Cherry Tree in bloom on a lovely Spring day. Except that it’s late FALL! I’ve seen trees blooming every Fall/Winter the last few years – here in north-central North Carolina, and even a few hours west in the cooler mountains. I had to tell my kids I’m as confused as they are – until 10 years ago I NEVER saw this.

Jeffrey Muchuweni Becker

Sometimes, an unusual environmental factor can cause plants to bloom out of season.

Stern said he recently observed an atamasco lily in flower at the botanical garden. “I suspect this is being triggered by a combination of temperature swings and the influence of a nearby light in our parking lot,” he said. 


Will fall blooms reduce harvests?

When drought causes plants like apples and lilacs to bloom in the fall, those buds aren’t available to become flowers in the spring. Depending on how many buds open early, out-of-season flowering could reduce the beauty of spring gardens and even hurt harvests. 

For apples, Longstroth said, there’s not much concern about fall blossoms because orchards thin fruits out anyway. But for crops like blueberries, where growers want every possible bud to lead to a fruit, fall flowers mean fewer berries to enjoy in the new year. 

Spring is here with blueberries ripening, the magnolia, day lilies, roses blooming, and Easter Lilies on the verge of blooming.

Debby Pigman

If fall blooming becomes a problem in personal gardens or for growers, people may need to help their gardens and crops adapt. One option is supplemental watering of sensitive plants, particularly during late-summer. Goldman said he recommends mulching around trees to help them better retain moisture and regulate soil temperature throughout the hot and dry summer months.

“Don’t put leaf bags out on the curb,” Goldman said. Instead, he recommended placing leaves around the base of trees. ”Regardless of what we’re able to do at a large scale with climate change mitigation, at this point certain things are locked in, and it’s important to talk about how we adapt to them.”

My father’s hydroponic garden has suffered from extreme heat. In August we had many days where the heat index was higher than 100 degrees. (He does hydroponic gardens because our soil has a disease called verticillium wilt and our tap water water is not safe due to GenX pollution in the Cape Fear River.)

Hank Hudson


Post about how climate change is affecting your garden

Did you notice any unusual plant behavior this year? Tell us about it, and tell us about any ways you find yourself helping plants, trees, or crops to manage hotter, drier conditions.


Story by Samantha Harrington for ISeeChange in Partnership with Yale Climate Connections.

Cover photo by Anna Cash.